is the generalised name for a class of sweet-flavored substances used
as food. They are carbohydrates and as this name implies, are composed
of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are various types of sugar
derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called
monosaccharides and include glucose, fructose and galactose. The table
or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a
disaccharide. Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose.
Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants but are only present in
sufficient concentrations for efficient extraction in sugarcane and
sugar beet. Sugarcane is a giant grass and has been cultivated in
tropical climates in the Far East since ancient times. A great
expansion in its production took place in the 18th century with the
setting up of sugar plantations in the West Indies and Americas. This
was the first time that sugar became available to the common people who
had previously had to rely on honey to sweeten foods. Sugar beet is a
root crop and is cultivated in cooler climates and became a major
source of sugar in the 19th century when methods for extracting the
sugar became available. Sugar production and trade has changed the
course of human history in many ways. It influenced the formation of
colonies, the perpetuation of slavery, the transition to indentured
labour, the migration of peoples, wars between 19th century sugar trade
controlling nations and the ethnic composition and political structure
of the new world.
Sugar Varieties and Types
Regular or white sugar, extra fine or fine sugar: There
are many different types of granulated sugar. Some of these are used
only by the food industry and professional bakers and are not available
in the supermarket. The types of granulated sugars differ in crystal
size. Each crystal size provides unique functional characteristics that
make the sugar appropriate for a specific food's special need.
"Regular" or white sugar, as it is known to consumers, is the sugar
found in every home's sugar bowl, and most commonly used in home food
preparation. White sugar is the sugar called for in most cookbook
recipes. The food industry stipulates "regular" sugar to be "extra
fine" or "fine" because small crystals are ideal for bulk handling and
not susceptible to caking.
Fruit sugar is slightly finer than "regular" sugar and is used in dry
mixes such as gelatin and pudding desserts, and powdered drinks. Fruit
sugar has a more uniform small crystal size than "regular" sugar. The
uniformity of crystal size prevents separation or settling of larger
crystals to the bottom of the box, an important quality in dry mixes.
Bakers Special Sugar:
The crystal size of Bakers Special is even finer than that of fruit
sugar. As its name suggests, it was developed specially for the baking
industry. Bakers Special is used for sugaring doughnuts and cookies, as
well as in some commercial cake recipes to create a fine crumb texture.
Superfine, ultrafine, or bar sugar:
This sugar's crystal size is the finest of all the types of granulated
white sugar. It is ideal for delicately textured cakes and meringues,
as well as for sweetening fruits and iced-drinks since it dissolves
easily. In England, a sugar very similar to superfine sugar is known as
caster or castor, named after the type of shaker in which it is often
Confectioners or powdered sugar:
This sugar is granulated sugar ground to a smooth powder and then
sifted. It contains about 3% cornstarch to prevent caking. Powdered
sugar is ground into three different degrees of fineness. The
confectioners sugar available in supermarkets – 10X – is the finest of
the three and is used in icings, confections and whipping cream. The
other two types of powdered sugar are used by industrial bakers.
As its name implies, the crystal size of coarse sugar is larger than
that of "regular" sugar. Coarse sugar is recovered when molasses-rich,
sugar syrups high in sucrose are allowed to crystallize. The large
crystal size of coarse sugar makes it highly resistant to color change
or inversion (natural breakdown to fructose and glucose) at cooking and
baking temperatures. These characteristics are important in making
fondants, confections and liquors.
Another large crystal sugar, sanding sugar, is used mainly in the
baking and confectionery industries as a sprinkle on top of baked
goods. The large crystals reflect light and give the product a
This sugar is raw sugar which has been partially processed, where only
the surface molasses has been washed off. It has a blond color and mild
brown sugar flavor, and is often used in tea and other beverages.
Evaporated Cane Juice: Evaporated Cane Juice is the common name for the
food-grade cane based sweetener produced directly from milled cane
using a single-crystallization process. The filtered, clarified juice
is evaporated into syrup, crystallized and cured. This free flowing
sweetener has a light golden color and retains a hint of molasses
flavor because there is no further processing.
Brown sugar (light and dark):
Brown sugar retains some of the surface molasses syrup, which imparts a
characteristic pleasurable flavor. Dark brown sugar has a deeper color
and stronger molasses flavor than light brown sugar. Lighter types are
generally used in baking and making butterscotch, condiments and
glazes. The rich, full flavor of dark brown sugar makes it good for
gingerbread, mincemeat, baked beans, and other full flavored foods.
Brown sugar tends to clump because it contains more moisture than white sugar.
Muscovado or Barbados sugar:
Muscovado sugar, a British specialty brown sugar, is very dark brown
and has a particularly strong molasses flavor. The crystals are
slightly coarser and stickier in texture than "regular" brown sugar.
Free-flowing brown sugars:
These sugars are specialty products produced by a co-crystallization
process. The process yields fine, powder-like brown sugar that is less
moist than "regular" brown sugar. Since it is less moist, it does not
clump and is free-flowing like white sugar.
Popular in England, Demerara sugar is a light brown sugar with large
golden crystals, which are slightly sticky from the adhering molasses.
It is often used in tea, coffee, or on top of hot cereals.
There are several types of liquid sugar. Liquid sugar (sucrose) is
white granulated sugar that has been dissolved in water before it is
used. Liquid sugar is ideal for products whose recipes first require
sugar to be dissolved. Amber liquid sugar is darker in color and can be
used in foods where brown color is desired.
Sucrose can be split into its two component sugars (glucose and
fructose). This process is called inversion, and the product is called
invert sugar. Commercial invert sugar is a liquid product that contains
equal amounts of glucose and fructose. Because fructose is sweeter than
either glucose or sucrose, invert sugar is sweeter than white sugar.
Commercial liquid invert sugars are prepared as different mixtures of
sucrose and invert sugar. For example total invert sugar is half
glucose and half fructose, while 50% invert sugar (half of the sucrose
has been inverted) is one-half sucrose, one-quarter glucose and
one-quarter fructose. Invert sugar is used mainly by food manufacturers
to retard the crystallization of sugar and to retain moisture in the
packaged food. Which particular invert sugar is used is determined by
which function – retarding crystallization or retaining moisture – is
Home cooks make invert sugar whenever a recipe calls for a sugar to be boiled gently in a mixture of water and lemon juice.
Packing List :
Sugar Pack 1
Sugar Pack 2
Sugar Pack 3
Sugar Pack 4
Note : We can provide customized packaging as per your requirements. Please feel free to contact.